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Symptoms are usually noticed by parents or teachers
Talking about the symptoms we should keep in mind that there are two people with dyslexia who express the same set of symptoms. However there are certain signs that may point to concluding about this problem.
- Extremes in the stages of development: in some children with dyslexia can occur faster development, while in others - delay (creeping, walking, speech ...)
- Short or absent period of creeping
- Delay in speech development, difficulty in forming sentences and correct spelling of words
- Difficulties in polysyllabic words
- General clumsiness and look of: difficulties in tying ties, dressing, self feeding difficulties in throwing, hitting and catching a ball, holding the pencil in an unusual way
- Difficulty of identifying the left-right, up and down before finally, and other words that indicate direction and time, difficulty remembering the order of the days of the week and months
- Difficulties in performing activities of phonological awareness
- Interchange the letters and numbers (eg 15 instead of 51) and confuses similar sounds (eg, y, h)
- Difficulty learning the names and rhymes
- Hears things not said or have remained unnoticed by others.Get easily distracted by noises
What impresses us gere is the fact despite all these problems the child is smart?
In primary school age
Reading: difficulty recognizing words, difficulties in reading aloud (reading slowly, do not use items), fatigue after reading faster, better listening comprehension than reading, substituting words and visually similar letters, substituting words with others with similar meaning; release, adding or changing small words, difficulties in perceiving words can not imagine viewing, complaints of dizziness, headache or abdominal pain while reading; complaints nonexistent movements of the characters during the reading, writing or rewriting.
Spell: substitution of visually similar letters, incorrect writing of simple words, errors in copying, signs of uncertainty when writing (deletions, corrections).
Writing the wrong way the child holds the pencil, need lots of exercise to be able to write a word correctly, slowly tiring writing; false start and end of letters, difficulty in writing a single line, the distance between words can be very big, little or sometimes does not exist.
Written expression: Very short sentences, incorrect use of dots and other signs; need more time than usual to write a sentence or written, readable text.
Mathematics: difficulties in calculating passing through ten; difficulties in drawing schemes geometry problems using multiplication and / or division; difficulties in using parts of all, to solve mathematical problems (even the easiest), uses his/her fingers, usualy can count consecutively, but finds it difficult to count specific objects and to operate with money, can solve arithmetic problems, but it difficult verbal once.
Organization of time: difficulties in using the clock, difficulty remembering dates and months, problems with time management to complete an activity, difficulty in remembering the order and time of the school curriculum.
Organization space: still confuses left and right, poor spatial orientation finds it difficult to organization of objects in the room.
Other activities: difficulties tied to the shoelaces, difficulties with dressing / undressing, difficulty in writing in large letters, often falling, bumping into things, a great long-term memory in terms of personal experiences, places and persons and vice versa - poor memory for facts and events not personally experienced, is thinking mainly through images, pictures and feelings, not sounds or words (little internal speech).
In middle school age
- Reading continues to be inaccurate
- Continues to make errors in spelling
- You have to repeat as phone numbers, but any instructions in order to be remembered
- There are difficulties in pronouncing long and complex words
- Confuses dates and locations
- There are poor self-confidence and self esteem
- The child has good and bad days
This child behaves differently. Why so?
Emotional and behavioral aspects
In elementary school focuses on reading, writing and arithmetic, which are a serious problem for children with dyslexia because it is based on linear thinking sequentially, while children with dyslexia thinking goes into full images and pictures. They understand that different from other children and do not know how to express what they feel. Must compete in a world in which their brains do not seem to work. Permanent remarks them are harder to focus more or just being stupid. Under these conditions the child is doomed to failure, going to school. Recurring failure in child-formed dyslectics sense of insecurity and guilt. These children experience failure far more often than other children. They do not cause in other satisfaction, approval, acceptance and affection, as it does not show the desired and expected progress. Environment and other simple saddle them with negative evaluations, rejection, criticism, social isolation and rude. Accordingly, the child is formed negativity and distrust in relation to any kind of relationship and activity. These children exhibit a sense of inferiority and are emotionally unstable.
As a consequence of all this manifest emotional and behavioral reactions that can vary in frequency, power and deviation from social norms. Emotional reactions may be - anger, depression, denial of conscious learning, open hostility, negative attitudes toward school, prone to addictions, disobedience svrahrazseyanost, closing his inner world, aggression and others.
Behavioral responses can also vary - from complete passivity and look of initiative, behaviors of to (games, psychoactive substances, alcohol) in svrahpodvizhnost, nervousness, disobedience, somatic symptoms (headache, abdominal pain, vomiting) to compensate in other areas that children feel good - sports, painting, etc. Sometimes it comes to stubborn refusal to go to school, truancy from school or home, the occurrence of tics (blinking, cough, shaking his head), self-harm.
Personal development of children with dyslexia can be marked by extremes:
- Can be extremely scattered or order manic.
- Such a child may be the "clown" of the class, the biggest rascal or the other extreme - too invisible
- Exhibit very strong sense of justice and the pursuit of perfection
- Have either extremely high or extremely low threshold of pain
During the development of interaction between internal and external factors trigger different forms of the syndrome at different levels and in different areas where environmental factors play a significant role for the consequences. Increased awareness and understanding of the problem leads to an increase in the number of identified dyslectics, although many of them still do without any support or without diagnoza.Za to fully understand what dyslexia is.Must understand the underlying factors and their interaction.Most features of the development include the interaction of several factors.They can be grouped on the biological, cognitive, behavioral and environmental factors.
Cognitive factors - cognitive processes are shaped by biological characteristics. The development of the functioning of attention, perception, memory, thinking and language is different in dyslectics.Development and improvement of these is most effective in childhood.If this development is accompanied by appropriate lessons and activities, then the advanced features will cause much less problems adulthood.Enhancing cognitive processes in adulthood is also effective, but there is also important and the compensation of the deviations.
Note: Typically the dyslectics that easily disordered. They pay attention to everything, not just the problem. Therefore, they collect much information, but usually not the one on which to focus at the moment.In the dyslectics not necessarily have attention deficit, since there are occasional spelling mistakes, while dyslectics they consist in the reversal of letters and syllables, writing phrases, consisting of one or more words and do segmentation.
Perception: Coordinating perception channels - sight, hearing, touch one another, and the movement takes place in early childhood. The child needs a lot of effort to achieve precise movements, precise understanding of information and relaxed orientation. In developing movement in children usually lack dyslectics crawling phase and therefore the organization of the nervous system is accustomed. Sensory motor integration or coordination of perception and movement is not enough. Therefore, it can develop disorders of body scheme, spatial orientation, as well as weakness in precise movements and auditory perception.
The scheme forms the basis of body orientation. Understanding of directions and connections based on the understanding of one's own body. The biggest problem comes from the distinction between right and left. The result is uncertainty in determining the direction in space, even in adulthood.
Distinguish sounds is another common problem for dyslectics. In the healing stages of language development when differentiated sounds, the emergence of highly otitis media leads to problems in distinguishing sounds. Because of this violation they does not understand clearly dyslectics have smooth speech, even if no hearing problems. This is the case of a problem in perception rather than the understanding of speech or comprehension disorder.
Failure in visual processing is also a common problem for dyslectics. This at first glance seems contrary to their relatively good visual spatial skills.dyslectics perceived visually first whole object, but can not deal with details and spatial relationships.Therefore, they process information different manner, think and learn differently.
Memory diasleksiyata often accompanied by weak or short pamet.Tova does not include general deficit in the processes of memory. The difficulty is in remembering the order of successive elementi.V same time dyslectics easily remembered everything should be taken as a whole and tend rather to remember the visual rather than verbal material.
Thinking dyslectics also have a special way of thinking. Logical-analytical thinking is not their strong point.Their thinking is characterized by an overview, intuitive approaches and understanding based on performance.They reached through the correlation of the basic feeling and therefore can not explain how they reached that result.They just see the solution.There is nothing mystical about it.This is the typical operation of the right hemisphere, while left proceed in a logical way by putting the details together like a mosaic, and the right decision as shown in the picture.
Behavioral factors - cognitive processes influencing skills development and thus behavior.
- Speech / Speech - Most of the dyslectics have no problems with speech, but have two major difficulties:
1. Finding the words. They hardly remember the words that are not easily confused chesto.Te use similar words, due to the homogeneous inhibition. Homogeneous inhibition is the rule apply to all (similar elements are mixed with one another), but dyslectics are more affected because the details of the analysis is too superficial in their system for processing information. Their vocabulary is poor, but the words and concepts are part of a system that is not clearly defined and sufficiently accessible. They tend to mingle foreign expressions that are similar both in their spelling and spelling.
2.Another difficulty is pursuing a long, continuous explanations, instructions and lectures.The problem is associated with weak coherent processing.
Reading - the problems here can be characterized by slower reading, skip lines reading another word (often a synonym or a similar) content of forgetting in long passages, errors in reading aloud.
The biggest problem is the creation of a unit of information received. This is due to deficiency of a coherent processing of information from here and weakness in the formation of ideas and images of words that are important in this disorder.
Write - Dyslexia may be accompanied by disgrafiya not necessarily lead to problems with writing. Usually writing dyslectics is ugly, disorganized and difficult to read, but acceptable. With great difficulty it is better to use word processing programs that are beneficial to all.
Bad spelling occurs as a result of problems with phonological processing and weaknesses when working with links and details.
Calculus - Many dyslectics can well believe they have developed methods appropriate to their abilities. The most common problems in multiplication and division.