Dyslexia ... How to recognize it?
There are plenty of signs that can ate wheter us, it is possible that your child has dyslexia. Careful monitoring by well-informed parent or teacher can recognize the symptoms at an early age and with special help to avoid many problems caused by improper treatment of the child.
The clinical manifestations of dyslexia can be conditionally divided into two groups: specific and general.
Specific characteristics are related to impaired development of specific functions - detection, identification and differentiation of incentives adopted trought a particular sensory channel (visual, auditory, tactile).
Disturbances in visual recognition
The problems are related to difficulties in classification of essential and permanent features of objects and the inability to re-identify with the memory. This affects the ability to distinguish similar optical stimuli (letters, words, pictures, real objects). Dyslexics see differently, perceive objects as a whole, multidimensionaly, without being able to distinguish certain characteristics.
As a result, there are difficulties in identifying the letters of similar graphic (n-a, and y b e, p, t, y, and, uh-h etc.)..
o-a and y b e-p-t and-y h-uh
These difficulties occur with visual-motor deficits, resulting in
discrepancies in the drawing - such as size, location, simplifying the objects and memoriting the right position right of the letters. Most typical are more spelling errors in short, simple words and difficulty in correctly recognizing whole words.
Disturbances in auditory recognition
These are violations of the ability to distinguish between similar sounding words and sounds.
e-t, u, d, k, b, p, beans - pop, house - Tom fan - fairy
With this type of disorder there are difficulties in the recoding of visual symbols to acoustic, once is impossible to connect the word with the semantic side.
Typical are also difficulties in analysis and synthesis - the root differentiation, confusion in the use of prefixes and suffixes.
Disorders not associated with specific analyzers (senses)
These disorders affect the ability of visual-spatial orientation, temporal orientation and perception of rhythmic sequence. It is difficult to perceive and evaluate the spatial dimensions of objects: size, shape and location in space. These disorders affect the understanding and use of terms denoting spatial relations, directions, left / right orientation, especially important for the development of mathematical skills and thinking.
With regard to the written form of speech and language functioning violations are mostly related to:
Logically short words are easier than the long once, the concrete to the abstract, to the the familiar unfamiliar and errors depend on the complexity of the syllabary words. As a rule, prefixes and suffixes are much more difficult to the understanding of the composition to the morpheme.
Rhytmic disorder affects the ability to perceive, production and programming. Accordingly, one has difficulty in the perception of melodies rate and stroke combinations.Impaired perception of rhytmic structures leads to errors in the use of accent and intonation in speech.
Common signs of dyslexia are associated with psychomotor development, behavior, characteristics of emotional and cognitive development.
The discrepancy between actual performance and capabilities is a major criterion for the identification of dyslexia. Dyslexic child is awake, with above the average intelligence, verbally expresses better, but has a problem with reading, writing and spelling in school.It is important at an early stage to identify the specific violations of the learning ability of the usual problems with school performance, to develop a coherent program for dealing with the problem.
Attention Deficit is typical for most dyslexic children but not mandatory. It is manifested in the difficulty of separating the main secondary (deficit of selective attention), restlessness, disorganized, impulsive, talkative. Largely due to this problem the fact that dyslexics perceive an overall picture of the surrounding reality, without identifying details, and their highly developed curiosity about what is happening around them.
It is well known that attention is crucial for mastering the language system and the related skills for reading and writing. So often low school achievement are explained only by attention deficit. If you fall into this trap, educators and parents stand to deepen the problem by waiting for baby to grow and conduct him to go away and loaded it with too many demands and negative attitude without actually help to overcome this problem.
Memory problems affect mostly the short-term and working memory, particularly in terms of visual-spatial information. This is related to difficulties in the use of "inner speech", which has a linear-sequential nature, while thinking of the children with dyslexia goes into full images and pictures.
Deficit of social skills
These disorders affect behavior can be divided in three main areas:
Dyslexia children often exhibit a lack of tact and delicacy. They can share personal information with a random or interlocutors but do not know how to establish close contact with those who want to be friends.Therefore they find it difficult to establish and maintain friendships with other people isolated from their peers.